Animals and Human Society: Changing Perspectives
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Modern society is beginning to re-examine its whole relationship with animals and the natural world. Until recently issues such as animal welfare and environmental protection were considered the domain of small, idealistic minorities. Now, these issues attract vast numbers of articulate supporters who collectively exercise considerable political muscle. Animals, both wild and domestic, form the primary focus of concern in this often acrimonious debate. Yet why do animals evoke such strong and contradictory emotions in people - and do our western attitudes have anything in common with those of other societies and cultures? Bringing together a range of contributions from distinguished experts in the field, Animals and Society explores the importance of animals in society from social, historical and cross-cultural perspectives.
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accept a subordinate role within what should have been Christian society. Very much like the pig that had killed a child, a Jew who had killed a Christian had committed an act so heinous, so much contrary to proper hierarchical perceptions, that he had to be executed by means of the inverted hanging. The animals brought to trial in both secular and ecclesiastical cases were real, flesh-and-blood animals. Unlike literary animals and public scapegoats they were not human substitutes, but real
discern between their right hand and their left hand; also much cattle’ (Jonah 4:11). Occasionally in the eighteenth century whole sermons were preached on such biblical passages. In 1752, in the Leipzig Pauliner Kirche, the professor of philosophy and doctor of theology Christian Gottlieb Jöcher (1694–1758) exhorted people to treat animals carefully by preaching on Luke 14:5 (Winkler 1762, III), while in the church of Shiplake, Oxfordshire, the vicar James Granger (1723–76) spoke with the same
Tierversuch unter ethischen Aspekten’, in Wolfgang Hardegg and Gert Preiser (eds) Tierversuche und medizinische Ethik. Beiträge zu einem Heidelberger Symposion, Hildesheim: Olms/Weidmann (Frankfurter Beiträge zur Geschichte, Theorie und Ethik der Medizin, vol. III), pp. 68–84. Pereira, Gómez (1749) Antoniana Margarita, opusnempe physicis, medicis actheologicis, non minus utile, quam necessarium, 2 vols, 2nd edn, Madrid: Ex Typographia Antonii Marin. Porphyrios (1747) Traité…touchant l’abstinence
arguing that relationships with pets can at least contribute to the process of positive attitudinal change. Clearly, it would be misleading to conclude from this that affection for pets provides some guarantee of concern for other classes of animal. After all, many lifelong pet owners appear content to disregard or contribute to the suffering or demise of other species (including humans), despite their ardent devotion to dogs and cats (see e.g. Arluke and Sax 1992). Nor can it be assumed that