Animals: From Mythology to Zoology (Discovering the Earth)
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The new seven-volume Discovering the Earth set examines the efforts made by scientists in the fields of environment, environmental protection, and environmental science. Covering a broad range of topics--including the Earth sciences, atmosphere, oceans, ecology, animals, plants, and exploration--the books in this comprehensive set provide a panorama of brief accounts of particular discoveries and the people who made them. These stories explain the problems that were solved, the ways they were approached, and, in some cases, the dead ends that scientists sometimes reached. Ideal for high school and college students and particularly valuable to students of environmental studies, ecology, biology, geography, geology, and the humanities, the books in the Discovering the Earth set shed light on the way the scientific aspect of Western culture has developed. Written in clear language and requiring no mathematical knowledge, these helpful books feature sidebars where necessary to explain a particular concept as well as full-color photographs, tables, charts, and further resources.
applies to every species. Animals, in Plato’s philosophy, cannot evolve. ARISTOTLE AND THE IMPORTANCE OF OBSERVATION Plato’s Academy, located in an Athenian olive grove, produced many scholars. The most famous of them by far was Aristotle (– ...). He was born at Stagirus, a Greek colony on the Macedonian coast, the son of Nichomachus, the personal physician to Amyntas III, the king of Macedonia. His father died while Aristotle was a boy, and he was raised by a guardian. In about
zoological research and conservation. Animals served as more than status symbols. They and their behavior provided moral lessons. This book describes some of the xii Introduction moral tales that were woven around animals in the Middle Ages. The authors of those tales had not visited the lands inhabited by the animals they described, so they had only the accounts of sailors and adventurers to guide them. Not surprisingly, many of their written descriptions and illustrations bore little relation
protect them. The hawk agreed, but as soon as the pigeons admitted him into their dovecote the hawk killed more of them in one day than the kite would have killed in a year. The moral? Beware that the remedy is not worse than the disease. One of the most famous of Aesop’s fables concerns a crow that had stolen a piece of meat and taken it to her perch high in a tree when a fox determined to take it from her. The fox flattered the crow, expressing admiration for her shape and plumage, but
Truth in the Sciences. This was an outline of a philosophical system he had been developing privately, and it was based on mathematics. Descartes was a skilled mathematician and recognized that since mathematical reasoning is the only known route to certainty all reasoning should employ mathematical methods. He based this on four principles: 3 3 3 3 The philosopher should accept as true only those assertions that cannot logically be denied—for example, “a father is older than his son.” Every
assert their belief that matter itself possessed the property of generating living beings. If they were right, it meant that far from being static, with everything—and everyone— occupying a preordained position in a hierarchy, the universe was unpredictable and constantly changing. It was more than a biological challenge; it was, quite literally, a revolutionary challenge to any idea of a static social order. Abraham Trembley was born in Geneva on September , , the son of a politician and