CliffsNotes on Aristotle's Ethics
Robert J. Mich, Charles H. Patterson
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The original CliffsNotes study guides offer expert commentary on major themes, plots, characters, literary devices, and historical background.
People have not changed significantly in the many years since Aristotle first lectured on ethics at the Lyceum in Athens. The human types and problems covered in CliffsNotes on Aristotle’s Ethics are familiar to everyone. The rules of conduct and explanations of virtue and goodness that he proposes can help people of all eras better understand their role in society.
This study guide allows you to make your way through Aristotle’s famous essays with confidence. You’ll find clear summaries and explanations of each major theme. Other features that help you study include
• Introduction to the life of Aristotle
• Overview of the main points of Aristotle’s ethical philosophy
• Summaries and critical commentaries of the complete Nichomachean Ethics
• Review questions
Classic literature or modern modern-day treasure — you'll understand it all with expert information and insight from CliffsNotes study guides.
As already shown, virtue is concerned with emotions and actions. In judging emotions and actions, we criticize excess and deficiency and praise the mean, which is construed by most people to constitute success. Both praise and success are signs of virtue and excellence. Consequently, virtue must be a mean in the sense that it aims at the mean. A further proof—it has often been said that in all things there are many ways to do wrong but only one way to do right. The Pythagoreans claim that good
ethics to discover the right principles of conduct and this involves knowledge of the final end or goal of life as well as the appropriate means for reaching it. In matters of this kind there is no substitute for sound judgment or what we are accustomed to speak of as good common sense. Plato had taught that knowledge of the good was the most important quest that could ever occupy the mind of man and Aristotle appears to be in Ml accord with this view. But how is this knowledge to be obtained?
less reprehensible since the objects of desire are worthy in themselves. Book VII: Chapter V Incontinence and Pathological Forms of Desire Summary Some things are not pleasant by nature, but can become pleasant as a result of physical disability, habit, or innate depravity. These include the items listed in the second category in the preceding chapter. Such forms of bestiality as cannibalism and such forms of morbidity as pederasty can be called incontinence in a qualified sense, but since
which are all ultimately developments of parental love. [There follows a discussion of the types of relationship that exist between kinsmen, e.g., brothers, parents and children, husbands and wives, which examines the origins, requirements, and obligations of these states.] Book VIII: Chapter XIII The Mutual Obligations of Equal Friends Summary As already stated, there are three forms of friendship, each of which is divided into two kinds, that between equals and that between unequals. In
motion, the transformation of potentiality into actuality, etc. On the Heavens, 2 books on the heavenly and sublunary bodies. On Generation and Decay, 2 books on the cyclical sequence of transformations. On Meteorology, 4 books on the phenomena of the air, with some discussion of chemistry and physics. III. Works on Biology History of Animals, 10 books containing a classified collection of facts pertaining to the anatomy of organisms, with particular emphasis on morphology (the branch of