Empire of Ancient Greece (Great Empires of the Past)

Empire of Ancient Greece (Great Empires of the Past)

Jean Kinney Williams

Language: English

Pages: 159

ISBN: 1604131659

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

The classical Greek civilization is the cornerstone of Western civilization today. The Greeks invented and developed everything from logic and democracy to rhetoric, drama, and philosophy. "Empire of Ancient Greece, Revised Edition" chronicles the remarkable legacy of the Greeks, as well as the diversity of their societies - from the thriving democracy of Athens to the militarism of Sparta to the oligarchy of Thrace. It explores the conditions that made it possible for the ancient Greeks to develop a culture that set the foundation for our intellectual lives today, and explains why Greek power eventually declined. Everyday life in ancient Greece, from the wealthy citizens who grappled in the Olympic arena to the farmers who found 50 different ways to use olive oil, is also examined. Connections in our own world to the ancient Greeks are numerous, including the Olympics, much of our classical literature, the scientific method, architecture, and many English words.

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For some Greek citizens, the military was their path to greater political influence. Aristocrats were only as powerful as the polis they controlled, and the rulers needed strong fighting forces to defend their city or expand its influence. Most city-states relied on their citizens to also serve as soldiers, as opposed to hiring and training professional troops. Around 700 B.C.E., Greek warfare began to feature the hoplites (see page 24). These citizen-soldiers began to demand a greater say in

slaves as well as perhaps by citizens or metic laborers. The civic loyalty of the upper classes of Athens made quite a difference in the quality of life for all city-state residents, because of the contributions they made to improve the city and maintain its basic functions. For example, Cimon (c. 507–409 B.C.E.), a naval hero in the war against the Persian Empire, installed a running track and shade trees for athletic Athenian men. Another wealthy man might pay for building and manning one

male citizens. Early in the sixth century B.C.E., Solon encouraged their immigration to Athens with liberal citizenship laws, but 150 years later citizenship was considered more valuable and Pericles restricted citizenship to the children of two Athenian parents. Yet metics flocked to Athens, drawn by the economic opportunities they found there. Metics had no real political power or rights, but many grew rich as manufacturers or in commerce or banking. Socrates had a friend, Cephalus from

kind of body his or her soul would later next. He also developed what seems today like a cult. A group of 103 EMPIRE OF ANCIENT GREECE >>>>>>>>>>>> students, both men and women, lived with him apart from Greek society. The Pythagoreans were vegetarians and avoided the usual Greek religious rites. The Ionians were followed in the fifth century B.C.E. by other philosopher-scientists who continPythagoras and his followers also did important work in ued to challenge their predecessors’

his followers (see chapter 6). After Hippocrates, the most important physician of the classical world was Galen (129–c. 200 C.E.). Born in the Greek city of Pergamum, he came to Rome around 164 C.E. Galen proved, among other things, that urine flows from the kidneys, and he wrote the first major book on anatomy. For centuries, doctors in Europe and the Middle East considered him their most influential source. Ptolemy (c. 90–c. 168 C.E.) was a famous Greek mathematician and astronomer. He wrote a

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