Hellenistic and Roman Sparta : a tale of two cities
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A comprehensive account of ancient Sparta over the eight centuries or so following her loss of "great power" status on the battlefield in 371BC. "Hellenistic and Roman Sparta" should be of interest to all those concerned with classical studies, as well as to the non-specialist reader attracted by the ambiguous repetition of this notorious city. Paul Cartledge and Antony Spawforth provide an analysis of social, political and economic changes in the Spartan community which challenges the conventional perception of Spartan "decline" in post-Classical antiquity.
generally Phyl., FGrHist. 81F44; Plut. Mor. 240ab; Cleom. 16.1. 11 Aristotle on oliganthrōpia: Cartledge 1979, 307–17 passim; 1987, 409–10. Spartan mercenaries: Tarn 1923, 129–30 (exaggerated); Bradford 1977, svv. Aristaeus, Aristei(das), Aristocles (6), Asclapiadas, Aphrodisius, Cleometus, Tetartidas (?), and most famously Xanthippus (especially Plb. i.32–36.4; 255 BC); generally Griffith 1935, 93–8. Invention of ‘traditions’ in conservative societies: Humphreys 1978, 249 (cf. Roman
second part (by A.J.S.S.) has as its (completely reworked) kernel the author’s Birmingham University PhD thesis, Studiesin the History of Roman Sparta, examined in 1982 by Martin Goodman and Fergus Millar, from whose comments the present work has sought to profit. Individual chapters in both parts have been read at varying stages of readiness by Ewen Bowie, Riet van Bremen, Simon Hornblower, John Lazenby, Ricardo Martinez-Lacy, Stephen Mitchell, Frank Walbank, Susan Walker and John Wilkes. As a
loser. Pyrrhus’ armament was reportedly immense: 25,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry, and—a typical post-Alexander touch—two dozen elephants. The incursion was unexpected, since Areus was at the time absent in Crete pursuing Sparta’s usual policy of headhunting potential mercenaries. And it was facilitated by Sparta’s Peloponnesian neighbours in Elis, Megalopolis, and Argos, together probably with some Achaeans. A diplomatically isolated, mentally unprepared and still physically inadequately defended
to be severed from Sparta and placed immediately under the tutelage of Achaea acting on Rome’s behalf. Nabis was not to bear arms to recover these Perioecic towns or conduct warfare of any kind or even conclude any external alliance. He was to build no new fortifications either in what was left of his own or in anyone else’s territory. He was to hand over five hostages, including his own son Armenas, and, finally, to pay an indemnity of 500 talents, one hundred down and the rest in eight annual
understanding of the Roman city’s resources, and the significance of adjustments to them during the centuries of Roman rule. Taking the north frontier first, Bölte and Chrimes, the latter independently, claimed that Rome deliberately restored it, at the expense of Megalopolis and Tegea, to its old, fifth-century, course. The only explicit evidence, however, concerns the border-region of Belminatis, where the head-waters of the Eurotas rose; this had belonged to Megalopolis in 189 BC